The Centro Para Prevenção da Poluição (C3P)


National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)


2003 C3P and NASA Technical Workshop

"Integrating Common Problems for Shared Solutions"


at Instituto Superior Técnico in Lisbon, Portugal

September 19, 2003

Below you will find briefings from the 2003 C3P and NASA Technical Workshop in Adobe Acrobat format.

(Workshop Agenda)

Program Overview:
C3P/NASA Program Overview
Presented By: Dr. Robert Hill, NASA AP2



VOC's Panel:
Project Areas #1- #3

Panel On Specific Projects Aiming At Reduction of Volatile Organic Compounds In Industry
Presented By: Prof. Dr. Eng. João Gomes, ISQ
                      Eng. Ana Cláudia Casinhas Coelho, ISQ
                      Dr. Kevin S. Andrews, NASA AP2
Matt Rothgeb, NASA AP2

Reduction/Elimination of VOCs in Cleaning Operations (detailed version of Project Area #2)
Presented By: Eng. Ana Cláudia Casinhas Coelho, ISQ
Dr. Kevin Andrews, NASA AP2

Project Area #4:

Reduction/Elimination of Emissions: Hexavalent-Chrome Cr6+)Plating Baths
Presented By: Eng. Sónia Ferreira, INEGI
 Eng. Matt Rothgeb, NASA AP2

Project Area #5:

Lead Free Solder
Presented By: Dr. Robert Hill, NASA AP2

Optimization of Current Equipment for Lead Free Soldering of Electric and Electronic Components
Presented By: Eng. Eduardo Lopes, ISQ

Project Area #6:

Lead-Free Copper-Zinc Alloys
Presented By: Eng. Rui Neto, INEGI
                    Prof. Jorge Lino, INEGI
                    Eng. Teresa Duarte, INEGI

Project Area #7:

Polymer Concretes
Presented By: Prof. António Ferreira, INEGI
   Eng. M. Sousa, INEGI
Eng. J. Gomes, ISQ

Project Area Overview:

Technology Migration Opportunities
Presented By: Dr. Robert Hill, NASA AP2

Oxygen Line Cleaning System
Presented By: Dr. Jerry Strauss, Versar

Applied Membrane Technology
Presented By: Eng. Stephan Conover, AMT



Cooperation and Technical Exchange Agreements were signed between C3P and OGMA, TAP-Air Portugal, ANIMEE, the National Association of Electric and Electronic Manufacturers, Caetano Bus (car/bus manufacturers) and British Aerospace Systems, at the end of the 2003 September Workshop.

The Portuguese Minister of Environment, Dr. Olga Dominguez from NASA, the American and British Ambassadors and the Ambassador Secretary General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Portugal, among many other participating individualities, can be identified in the photos below.



C3P and NASA Technical Workshop

"Integrating Common Problems for Shared Solutions"


1. History/Program Overview

An overview of the C3P and NASA environmental technology pollution prevention program was presented.  The programmatic and project expectations and inter-relationships that are to occur between C3P and NASA joint project efforts were clearly outlined.  The presenters noted that it is becoming more evident that partnerships with industry are providing value for not only today’s issues but also for tomorrow’s needs and solutions. 

The project methodology and each of the six-phase steps were explained in detail.  Additionally, cross-feed of project technical information and alternative material development to reduce duplication of effort, cost, and technical risks and the use of common methodology provides basis for shared understanding and project validation and test results that lead to common implementation.

The audience was informed of the previous events to facilitate partnerships for common technology projects, noting that the American Ambassador and the Ministério do Ambiente de Portugal (Portuguese Ministry of Environment), signed a Joint Statement (JS) Between NASA and the Portuguese Ministry of the Environment Regarding Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Pollution Prevention in September 2002 

The attendees were also informed that immediately following the JS signing a Terms of Reference was signed by the NASA Director of Environmental Management, Portuguese President of the Institute of Environment, and the C3P Director General to accomplish the specifics of the following tenets:

1. Integrating ESH considerations in acquisition, manufacturing, and maintenance

2. Information sharing on integrating ESH considerations into life cycle analysis;

3. Environmental risk assessments and the use of information networks;

4. Information sharing programs on environmental dispersal and health;

5. Effects;

6. Information sharing on EU regulations and their potential impact;

8. Integrating safety and occupational health considerations into environmental

The challenge for C3P and NASA is to now identify the common technology needs, thus the expected outcome of the C3P-NASA Technical Workshop.  The attendees were informed of a common Need Identification, Analysis, Integration, and Program/ Project Management process for developing specific projects.  As a result of this effort, a potential alternative technology identification and demonstration/validation testing requirements will be developed from the Government and industry partners sharing common needs.  The Workshop attendees were then challenged that it is now our time for discovery through new partnerships to identify common needs, shared solutions, and new alternative technology qualification.

2.  Chemical Product Regulations Impact in Transatlantic Relations Panel Session

The panel members discussed the Chemical Product Regulation development process that is of a similar nature between the United States (US) and the European Union (EU).  In the US, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines from environmental indicators what chemicals put pressure on our air, water, and land resources, and the resulting effects on ecological and human health.  Similarly, within the EU and members states, environmental indicators are evaluated to determine what chemicals put pressure on our air, water, and land resources, and the resulting effects on ecological and human health.

The issue of chemical product regulations is not new as regulations date back to the early 1970.  Numerous air toxics standards affecting 82 categories of major industrial sources, such as chemical plants, oil refineries, aerospace manufacturers, and steel mills, as well as eight categories of smaller sources, such as dry cleaners, commercial sterilizers, secondary lead smelters, and chromium electroplating facilities, are in effect today.

Our missions are sometimes very different: military, commercial industry, aerospace research wherein chemical product regulations impact us all.  The regulations address chemical product material constituents including Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs) and heavy metals.  Many of which are used in products that are shared globally in our marketplaces and in common uses among our NATO Allies.

Maintaining compliance with chemical product regulations should not be the core mission.  Yet, government and industry must comply with policy and regulations to avoid regulators fines, lawsuits, and stop-work as the regulations cover a broad range of facilities and applications.  Strategy to scope specific projects to address chemical product regulations, to reduce/eliminate hazardous material (HazMats) use, avoid duplication of effort in qualifying alternatives, and reduce cost and technical risks can be accomplished through the program and project relationships presented.

The closing guidance of the panel members represented that the project areas exercised through the project methodology outlined, can sustain projects whose effects provide for a dual focus on implementation.  In other words, purchasing of cleaner materials and services for use in common manufacturing and maintenance processes that will enable our ability to have a sustainable environment.

The result of the common drivers between the US and EU in meeting the regulatory and legislative requirements clearly establishes the opportunity for the common needs for shared solutions approach. 

3. Project Panel

The Workshop attendees were then introduced to the project development activities that had taken place thus far. 

In June 2003, the NASA and C3P Engineering (consisting of ITB, Inc., Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade (ISQ) and Instituto de Engenharia Mecãnica e Gestão Industrial (INEGI) engineers) Team completed an environmental technology needs assessment at 24 government and commercial manufacturing and maintenance facilities in and around Lisbon and Porto, Portugal.

The objective of the assessments sought to evaluate industrial processes for existing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs,) and HazMats uses, identify technologies or processes to meet EU and Portuguese legislative requirements, and determine project areas to yield cost and environmental benefits to joint project participants.


The Assessment Team’s single dominant assessment conclusion is that the majority of sites visited face challenges and limiting mechanisms from the passing of Portuguese environmental legislation DL no 242/2001 VOC emission levels.  The Assessment Team determined that to meet the challenges of EU and Portuguese reductions in VOC emissions and HazMat uses requires a combination of economic and integrated technology efforts in best management practices, control technologies, and the identification and validation of alternative materials.


The results found the following four areas of common opportunities for shared solution:


1. Continue with joint project identification and development in the following areas:

  • VOC emission control – control release until low VOC materials/processes are qualified;

  • Reduction/elimination of VOCs and hazardous materials in cleaning applications;

  • Reduction/elimination of emissions from hexavalent-chrome (Cr6+) plating baths;

  • Identification, demonstration and validation of low/no-VOC paints, coatings, inks and adhesives.

2. Continue to evaluate environmental technology migration opportunities between Portuguese and NASA applications in the following areas:

  • Demonstration and validation of suitable alternatives to hexavalent-chrome (Cr6) in metal surface finishing conversion coatings and primer coatings;

  • VOC and HazMat free technologies for depainting on aluminum and composite substrates;

  • Demonstration and validation of alternatives to cadmium plating for aircraft components;

  • Non-trichloroethylene (TCE) oxygen line cleaning systems;

  • Reduction/elimination of VOCs from ink/paint stenciling and marking;

  • Lead-free solder.


3. Continue efforts to build a network to share best management practices and exchange information between Government and industry partners.


4. Continue efforts to identify emerging technologies that address current national P2 interests.

  • Identification/production of lead-free brass for domestic appliances;

  • Polymer concretes using recycled aggregates.

The following seven Project Areas were presented as a result of the assessment activity and known technology needs interests.  In addition, a briefing was presented on potential technology migration opportunities to address some of the concerns identified above. 

The briefing packages for each area is available on the C3P web site

Project Area #1
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Emission Control: Control release until low VOC materials/processes are qualified.

Project Area #2
Reduction / Elimination of VOCs (MEK, MIBK, TEC, etc.) in cleaning applications.

Project Area #3

Identification, Demonstration and Validation: Low/No-VOC paints, coatings, inks, and adhesives.


Project Area #4
Reduction / Elimination of emissions: Hexavalent-chrome (Cr6) plating baths.


Project Area #5
 Lead-Free Solder.


Project Area Overview:

Technology Migrations Opportunities: Low/No VOC Coatings (Powder Paint, Non-Chrome Primers, and Labeling System for No VOC Marking), Heavy Metals in Aerospace Processing, Emission Controls through Applied Membrane Technology, and Oxygen Line Cleaning. 


Project Area #6
Lead-Free Copper-Zinc Alloys.


Project Area #7
Polymer Concretes.



4.  Program/Project Process Review and Actions/Next Steps

After the proposed project areas, the Workshop attendees were presented with the next steps for scoping the project areas into specific projects.  The organization of this workshop will permit participants to form collaborate P2 project partnerships that will greatly enable government, industry, SME managers, program and process owners, and contractors to systematically address problems in air emissions, and HazMat waste generation and disposal.  From the collaborative partnerships, participants will benefit from sharing visibility of Dem/Val results and/or technology migration of identified commercially available solutions, practices, and procedures.

This process will result in participants being able to focus and maximize limited resource investments to meet current and future environmental legislation effecting manufacturing, re-manufacturing, and maintenance facility processes.

The next steps will be to define the “What’s Missing” from the project areas presented during the Technical Workshop.  The following five areas will need to be addressed and determined to continue scoping the particular projects.  For each project:

    1. Build up of consortium (consortium size dependent on project opportunity);

    2. Prepare proposals (with budgets) and obtain funding;

          3. Improve the exchange of knowledge between such groups as the JGPP/C3P (USA/UE);

(As an example: Engineering teams to research and define project opportunity, potential alternatives, and engineering test requirements
for qualifying less/non-hazardous materials with experts from USA and EU). 

   4. Determine business attitude for exploitation of results, alternative implementation, and technology migration;

   5. For each technology migration opportunity, develop a dynamic project participant attitude that fosters a win-win result. 


As consideration for potential project next steps, the following potential funding resources were identified:

  • Proposal for Life Program – EU

  • Innovation Agency – Portugal

  • Programa Operacional de Economia – PRIME (POE)


  • EU, VI Framework Programme

Workshop attendees were then asked to consider the information presented and to then contact C3P for their further interest in a project area.  C3P designated representatives are available to provide services and perform P2 assessments, identify pervasive environmental technology needs, identify potential alternatives that are less or non-hazardous, identify partnerships, and manage joint technical and business activities in selected projects.




The Technical Workshop involved 121 attendees representing 53 Portuguese entities (39 companies, 3 associations and 11 institutes and universities), H.E. Minister for  Environment of Portugal; U.S. participants from NASA, U.S. Air Force, and companies such as Boeing, AMT, Vesar; and another 5 international entities. 

The Technical Workshop presented that pollution–related legislation / regulations are restrictive to both U.S. and EU interests. That the results affect all industrial sectors are involved, directly or indirectly. Relevance to the industrial sector:



Industrial sectors: Paints and dyes, textiles, plastics, graphics, cleaning, automotive, rubber, wood, shoes, etc.


Lead-Free In Portugal:

116 enterprises, electric and electronics industrial association affecting some 43000 workers.

It was presented during the Technical Workshop that some project areas are already in existence/underway (RTD, Universities, Enterprises).  The need now is to leverage participation to reduce duplication of effort and costs. To successfully leverage participation it was presented that using and working within the project six-phase methodology to obtain positive results has been demonstrated and is now known. 

From the result of the Technical Workshop, a number of project partners already identified and contacted.

Number of potential projects: 3

Number of potential projects involving technology transfer: 2

Total number of potential partners identified: 30

Number of Universities: 4

Number of IDT Institutions: 5

Number of Enterprises: 24 Portuguese and 3 Foreign

Total projected budget for identified Technical Workshop projects: 3 Million Euros (estimated)


In closing, the C3P initiative and methodology already have political backing (Minister’s opening address). The Portuguese Government is committed to creating a USA/EU platform from which we can develop activities in pollution prevention.  From the Technical Workshop, one can easily see that pollution prevention can only be regarded from an all-encompassing point of view that leads to sustainability.  The Workshop well presented that partnerships are key to integrating common needs for shared solutions: institutions, IDT/ enterprises, and public/private participation.  Together, through the partnerships, knowledge exchange, sharing information, and experiences, are not only an act of solidarity with Nature/the Planet, but are necessary to successfully reduce duplication of effort and to minimize technical risks and costs in qualifying and implementing alternative less/non-hazardous materials and process.




Last updated: 26/02/2009